The Islamic republic of Pakistan emerged on the map of the world as an independent sovereign state on 14th August 1947, as a result of the division of the former British India. It lies between 23-35 to 37- 05 north latitude and 60-50 to 77- 50 east longitude. It touches the Hindukush mountains in the north and extends from the Pamirs to the Arabian Sea. It is bounded by Iran in the west, Afghanistan in the north-west, India in the east and south east and Arabian Sea in the south. There is a common border with China alongside Gilgit and Baltistan in the north.